The History of IVF -The Milestones
The history of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) dates back as early as the 1890s when Walter Heape a professor and physician at the University of Cambridge, England, who had been conducting research on reproduction in a number of animal species, reported the first known case of embryo transplantation in rabbits, long before the applications to human fertility were even suggested.
In 1932, ‘Brave New World’ was published by Aldous Huxley. In this science fiction novel, Huxley realistically described the technique of IVF as we know it. Five years later in 1937, an editorial appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM 1937, 21 October) which is note worthy.
"Conception in a watch glass: The ‘Brave New World’ of Aldous Huxley may be nearer realization. Pincus and Enzmann have started one step earlier with the rabbit, isolating an ovum, fertilizing it in a watch glass and reimplanting it in a doe other than the one which furnished the oocyte and have thus successfully inaugurated pregnancy in the unmated animal. If such an accomplishment with rabbits were to be duplicated in the human being, we should in the words of ‘flaming youth’ be ‘going places.’"
In 1934 Pincus and Enzmann, from the Laboratory of General Physiology at Harvard University, published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, raising the possibility that mammalian eggs can undergo normal development in vitro. Fourteen years later, in 1948, Miriam Menken and John Rock retrieved more than 800 oocytes from women during operations for various conditions. One hundred and thirty-eight of these oocytes were exposed to spermatozoa in vitro. In 1948, they published their experiences in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
However, it was not until 1959 that indisputable evidence of IVF was obtained by Chang (Chang MC, Fertilization of rabbit ova in vitro. Nature, 1959 8:184 (suul 7) 466) who was the first to achieve births in a mammal (a rabbit) by IVF. The newly-ovulated eggs were fertilized, in vitro by incubation with capacitated sperm in a small Carrel flask for 4 hours, thus opening the way to assisted procreation.
In 1965, Robert Edwards together with Georgeanna and Howard Jones at Johns Hopkins Hospital in the USA attempted to fertilize human oocytes in vitro (Edwards RG, Donahue RP, Baramki TA, Jones HW Jr. Preliminary attempts to fertilize human oocytes matured in vitro. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1966; 15;96:192-200).
The first IVF pregnancy was reported by the Monash research team of Professors Carl Wood and John Leeton in Melbourne, Australia. Unfortunately, this resulted in early miscarriage (dDe Kretzer D, Dennis P, Hudson B, Leeton J, Lopata A, Outch K, Talbot J, Wood C. Transfer of a human zygote. Lancet, 1973 29;2:728-9).
Y. Menezo developed the world's first B2 culture medium, known as ‘the French medium’. This specific medium reflected the follicular, tubal and uterine environments of the sheep, rabbits and humans.
Steptoe and Edwards published a report on an ectopic pregnancy following transfer of a human embryo at the late morulae /early blastocyst stage. (Steptoe PC, Edwards RG. Reimplantation of a human embryo with subsequent tubal pregnancy. Lancet, 1976; 24:1:880-2).
The first ever IVF birth occurred in Oldham, England on July 25, 1978. This birth was the result of the collaborative work of Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards (Steptoe PC, Edwards RG. Birth after the reimplantation of a human embryo. Lancet, 1978 ; 12;2:366).
Lopata in Melboure described the first cycles stimulated with clomiphene citrate (Lopata A, Johnston IW, Hoult IJ, Speirs AI. Pregnancy following intrauterine implantation of an embryo obtained by in vitro fertilization of a preovulatory egg. Fertil Steril. 1980 ;33:117-20).
The introduction of culture medium (Mohr LR, Trounson AO. The use of fluorescein diacetate to assess embryo viability in the mouse. J Reprod Fertil 1980;58:189-96).
Howard and Georgianna Seegar Jones announced the delivery of the first IVF baby in the United States. This first IVF birth in the USA was achieved with the use of hMG.
Wood and his colleague introduced a foot-controlled fixed aspiration pressure control (Wood C, Leeton J, Talbot JM, Trounson AO. Technique for collecting mature human oocytes for in vitro fertilization. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1981;88(7):756-60).
Introduction of Clomiphene Citrate and hMG in the IVF treatment protocol (Trounson AO, Leeton JF, Wood C, Webb J, Wood J. Pregnancies in humans by fertilization in vitro and embryo transfer in the controlled ovulatory cycle. Science 1981 8;212:681-2) .
The Clamart group in France developed an LH assay (LH-SIR0 which could detect the initial LH rise in plasma allowing accurate prediction of the ideal time for the retrieval of oocytes (Testart J, Frydman R, Feinstein MC, Thebault A, Roger M, Scholler R. Interpretation of plasma luteinizing hormone assay for the collection of mature oocytes from women: definition of a luteinizing hormone surge-initiating rise. Fertil Steril. 1981 Jul;36(1):50-4).
The first French IVF birth occurred in Clamart, France by the group of Frydman and Testart.
The first IVF birth in Sweden (Hamberger L, Wikland M, Nilsson L, Janson PO, Sjo¨ gren A and Hillensjo¨ T (1982) Methods for aspiration of human oocytes by various techniques. Acta Med Rom 20,370 – 378).
Birth of first Austrian "Test tube baby" (Twin pregnancy) (Feichtinger W, Szalay S, Kemeter P, Beck A, Janisch H.Twin pregnancy after laparoscopic oocyte recovery, in-vitro fertilization and embryotransfer (author's transl)]Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1982;42(3):197-9).
The first demonstration that GnRH agonists can be used to eliminate premature luteinization and control ovarian stimulation
(Fleming R, Adam AH, Barlow DH, Black WP, MacNaughton MC, Coutts JR. A new systematic treatment for infertile women with abnormal hormone profiles. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1982 ;89:80-3).
The first report of the need for a delay between oocyte collection and insemination to allow oocytes collected to complete maturation (Trounson AO, Mohr LR, Wood C, Leeton JF. Effect of delayed insemination on in-vitro fertilization, culture and transfer of human embryos. J Reprod Fertil 1982;64:285-94).
Susan Lenz and Jurgen G Lauritsen demonstrated trans abdominal transvesical oocyte aspiration using an ultrasound-guided needle (Lenz S, Lauritsen JG. Ultrasonically guided percutaneous aspiration of human follicles under local anesthesia: a new method of collecting oocytes for in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 1982;38:673-7).
Bourn Hall worlds first IVF Conference
Maturation and fertilization of morphologically immature human oocytes in an IVF (Veeck LL, Wortham JW Jr, Witmyer J, Sandow BA, Acosta AA, Garcia JE, Jones GS, Jones HW Jr. Maturation and fertilization of morphologically immature human oocytes in a program of in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 1983;39:594-602).
The first paper predicting follicular steroids as a prognosticator for successful IVF (Fishel SB, Edwards RG, Walters DE. Follicular steroids as a prognosticator of successful fertilization of human oocytes in vitro. J Endocrinol. 1983;99(2):335-44.)
The Government of Victoria established a review of IVF research and practice which led to the proclamation of the Infertility (Medical Procedures) Act 1984, the first legislation to regulate IVF and its associated human embryo research.
First surrogacy embryo transfer baby born in California
First report on pregnancy following translaparoscopic GIFT procedure (Asch RH, Ellsworth LR, Balmaceda JP, Wong PC. Pregnancy after translaparoscopic gamete intrafallopian transfer. Lancet, 1984;3;2:1034-5).
The first report on pregnancy following IVF and egg donation in a woman with primary ovarian failure. (Lutjen P, Trounson A, Leeton J, Findlay J, Wood C and Renou P. The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy using in vitro fertilization and embryo donation in a patient with primary ovarian failure. Nature, 1984;307,174 – 175).
Introduction of GnRH agonists to the IVF treatment protocol (Porter RN, Smith W, Craft IL, Abdulwahid NA, Jacobs HS. Induction of ovulation for in-vitro fertilisation using buserelin and gonadotropins. Lancet, 1984;1;2:1284-5).
A report of pregnancy following transfer of intact frozen-thawed embryos (Zeilmaker GH, Alberda AT, van Gent I, Rijkmans CM, Drogendijk AC.Two pregnancies following transfer of intact frozen-thawed embryos. Fertil Steril. 1984;42(2):293-6).
An unusual report of the possibility that abnormal spermatozoa could be enriched and give rise to healthy babies. (Cohen J, Fehilly CB, Fishel SB, Edwards RG, Hewitt J, Rowland GF, Steptoe PC, Webster J. Male infertility successfully treated by in-vitro fertilisation.Lancet. 1984, 2;1(8388):1239-40).
The first publication demonstrating HCG secretion by the human embryo (Fishel SB, Edwards RG, Evans CJ. Human chorionic gonadotropin secreted by preimplantation embryos cultured in vitro.Science. 1984, 24;223(4638):816-8).
The world's first IVF quadruplets were born on January 6, 1984, in Melbourne.
Human pregnancy by in vitro fertilization (IVF) using sperm aspirated from the epididymis. (Temple-Smith PD, Southwick GJ, Yates CA, Trounson AO, de Kretser DM. Human pregnancy by in vitro fertilization (IVF) using sperm aspirated from the epididymis. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transf. 1985;2(3):119-22).
First description of transvaginal sector scan sonography for needle-guided transvaginal follicle aspiration (Feichtinger W, Kemeter P. Transvaginal sector scan sonography for needle guided transvaginal follicle aspiration and other applications in gynecologic routine and research. Fertil Steril 1986 May;45(5):722-5).
The first preclinical evaluation of pronuclear formation by microinjection of human spermatozoa into human oocytes. (Lanzendorf SE, Maloney MK, Veeck LL, Slusser J, Hodgen GD, Rosenwaks Z. A preclinical evaluation of pronuclear formation by microinjection of human spermatozoa into human oocytes. Fertil Steril. 1988 May;49(5):835-42).
1989First report on biopsy of human preimplantation embryos and sexing by DNA amplification. (Handyside AH, Pattinson JK, Penketh RJ, Delhanty JD, Winston RM, Tuddenham EG. Biopsy of human preimplantation embryos and sexing by DNA amplification. Lancet. 1989;18;1:347-9).
Pregnancies from biopsied human preimplantation embryos sexed by Y-specific DNA amplification. (Handyside AH, Kontogianni EH, Hardy K, Winston RM. Pregnancies from biopsied human preimplantation embryos sexed by Y-specific DNA amplification. Nature. 1990;19;344:768-70).
Fishel et all reported about twin birth after subzonal insemination (Fishel S, Antinori S, Jackson P, Johnson J, Lisi F, Chiariello F, Versaci C. Twin birth after subzonal insemination. Lancet. 1990 24;335(8691):722-3).
Pregnancy after embryo biopsy and coamplification of DNA from X and Y chromosomes. (Grifo JA, Tang YX, Cohen J, Gilbert F, Sanyal MK, Rosenwaks Z. Pregnancy after embryo biopsy and coamplification of DNA from X and Y chromosomes. JAMA 1992, 12;268(6):727-9).
Ovulation induction by endogenous LH released by the administration of an LHRH agonist after follicular stimulation for in vitro fertilization (Emperaire JC, Ruffié A, Audebert AJ. Ovulation induction by endogenous LH released by the administration of an LHRH agonist after follicular stimulation for in vitro fertilization. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1992;21:489-94. French).
First report on cumulative conception and live birth rates after IVF in relation to patient's age and cause of infertility (Tan SL, Royston P, Campbell S, Jacobs HS, Betts J, Mason B, Edwards RG. Cumulative conception and livebirth rates after in-vitro fertilisation. Lancet. 1992,6;339(8806):1390-4).
First two births from replacement of frozen embryos produced with epididymal sperm (Patrizio P, Silber S, Ord T, Marello E, Balmaceda JP, Asch RH. Replacement of frozen embryos generated from epididymal spermatozoa: the first two pregnancies. Hum Reprod 1992;7(5):652-3)
Report on using Erbium YAG laser for micromanipulation of oocytes and spermatozoa (Feichtinger W, Strohmer H, Radner KM. Erbium YAG laser for micromanipulation of oocytes and spermatozoa. Lancet. 1992, 11;340(8811):115-6).
Investigating the role of FSH in hypogonadotropic women usung the new recombinant FSH drug (Schoot DC, Coelingh Bennink HJ, Mannaerts BM, Lamberts SW, Bouchard P, Fauser BC. Human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone induces growth of preovulatory follicles without concomitant increase in androgen and estrogen biosynthesis in a woman with isolated gonadotropin deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 74: 1471-3).
The second term pregnancy after ICSI reported by a group in Sweden (Hamberger et al, 1993, In Gordts S (ed) Proceedings of European Symposium on Micromanipulation. Drukkerij Nauwelaerts, Leuven, Belgium, pp 85).
Confirmation that men with congenital absence of the vas defference, have cystic fibrosis mutations which can be transmitted to the offspring (Patrizio P, Asch RH, Handelin B, Silber SJ. Aetiology of congenital absence of vas deferens: genetic study of three generations. Hum Reprod. 1993;8(2):215-20).
First report on the use of TESE (testicular sperm extraction) and ICSI (Silber SJ, Nagy ZP, Liu J, Godoy H, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem AC. Conventional in-vitro fertilization versus intracytoplasmic sperm injection for patients requiring microsurgical sperm aspiration. Hum Reprod. 1994;9(9):1705-9).
First Preganancy and birth following treatment with Rec-FSH (Devroey P, Mannaerts B, Smith J, Coelingh Bennink H, Van Steirteghem A. First established pregnancy and birth after ovarian stimulation with recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (Org 32489). Hum Reprod.1993 Jun;8(6):863-5).
The first live birth as a result of IVM following transvaginal ultrasound–guided oocyte collection. (Trounson A, Wood C, Kausche A. In vitro maturation and the fertilization and developmental competence of oocytes recovered from untreated polycystic ovarian patients. Fertil Steril 1994;62(2):353-62).
Birth after blastocyst development from IVM oocyte plus ICSI plus Assisted Hatching (Barnes FL, Crombie A, Gardner DK, Kausche A, Lacham-Kaplan O, Suikkari AM, Tiglias J, Wood C, Trounson AO. Blastocyst development and birth after in-vitro maturation of human primary oocytes, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and assisted hatching. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(12):3243-7).
The first report of aneuploidy testing (Munné S, Sultan KM, Weier HU, Grifo JA, Cohen J, Rosenwaks Z. Assessment of numeric abnormalities of X, Y, 18, and 16 chromosomes in preimplantation human embryos before transfer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172(4 Pt 1):1191-9; discussion 1199-201 ).
Zenzes from the group of Casper in Toronto demonstrated adverse effects of cigarette smoking on nuclear spindle. (Zenzes MT, Wang P, Casper RF. Cigarette smoking may affect meiotic maturation of human oocytes. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(12):3213-17).
The first report in which spermatids were used to achieve pregnancy. (Fishel S, Green S, Bishop M, Thornton S, Hunter A, Fleming S, al-Hassan S. Pregnancy after intracytoplasmic injection of spermatid. Lancet. 1995, 24;345(8965):1641-2).
Dmitri Dozortsev and coworkers have discovered that oocyte activation during ICSI is triggered by a water-soluble, heat-sensitive, non species specific cytosolic sperm factor. (Dozortsev D, Rybouchkin A, De Sutter P, Qian C, Dhont M. Human oocyte activation following intracytoplasmic injection: the role of the sperm cell. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(2):403-7).
The larget study done in the filed of IVF comparing urinary FSH with Rec-FSH (Out, H.J., Mannaerts, B.M., Driessen, S.G. and Coelingh Bennink, H.J. A prospective, randomized, assessor blind, multicenter study comparing recombinant and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone in in vitro fertilization. Hum. Reprod., 1995: 10, 2534 –2540).
The Valencia group reported on the first pregnancy employing cryopreserved testicular sperm following IVF-ICSI. . (Gil-Salom M, Romero J, Minguez Y, Rubio C, De los Santos MJ, Remohí J, Pellicer A. Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(6):1309-13).
Discovery that some men with severe oligoasthenospermia have deletions in the Y-chromosome (Reijo R, Alagappan RK, Patrizio P, Page DC. Severe oligozoospermia resulting from deletions of azoospermia factor gene on Y chromosome. Lancet, 1996, 11;347(9011):1290-3).
Jurisicova from the Casper group was the first to recognize that preimplantation of human embryo fragmentation involved programmed cell death. (Jurisicova A, Varmuza S, Casper RF. Programmed cell death and human embryo fragmentation. Mol Hum Reprod. 1996;2(2):93-8).
Casper and his colleagues were the first to demonstrate and introduce the use of the hypo-osmotic swelling test for selection of immotile sperm for ICSI. (Casper et al. 1996 Fertil Steril 65:972)
First report on cytoplasmic transfer (Cohen J, Scott R, Schimmel T, Levron J, Willadsen S. Birth of infant after transfer of anucleate donor oocyte cytoplasm into recipient eggs. Lancet, 1997, 19;350(9072):186-7)
Sun, Jurisicova and Casper described the use of TUNEL for detection of DNA fragmentation in sperm and correlation with IVF outcome. They showed almost uniform presence of DNA fragmentation in round spermatids as the explanation for failure to achieve pregnancy with these immature gametes. (Sun JG, Jurisicova A, Caspe RF. Detection of deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation in human sperm: correlation with fertilization in vitro. Biol Reprod. 1997 Mar;56(3):602-7).
First births of babies from frozen oocytes following use of ICSI: - Porcu et al, Birth of a healthy female after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of cryopreserved human oocytes. (Porcu E, Fabbri R, Seracchioli R, Ciotti PM, Magrini O, Flamigni C. Birth of a healthy female after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of cryopreserved human oocytes. Fertil Steril. 1997;68(4):724-6).
First report on cytoplasmic transfer (Cohen J, Scott R, Schimmel T, Levron J, Willadsen S. Birth of infant after transfer of anucleate donor oocyte cytoplasm into recipient eggs. Lancet, 1997;19;350:186-7).
Falloposcopic GIFT: Births after transcervical gamete intrafallopian transfer with a falloposcopic delivery system. (Porcu E, Dal Prato L, Seracchioli R, Petracchi S, Fabbri R, Flamigni C. Births after transcervical gamete intrafallopian transfer with a falloposcopic delivery system. Fertil Steril. 1997 Jun;67(6):1175-7).
Pregnancy after treatment with three recombinant gonadotropins (Agrawal R, West C, Conway GS, Page ML, Jacobs HS. Pregnancy after treatment with three recombinant gonadotropins. Lancet. 1997;4;349:29-30).
First establish pregnancy using recombinant FSH and GnRH antagonist (Itskovitz-Eldor J, Kol S, Mannaerts B, Coelingh Bennink H. First established pregnancy after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone and the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist ganirelix (Org 37462). Hum Reprod. 1998;13:294-5).
Gardner introduced sequential media and blastocyst transfer which is now greatly assists in the move to single embryo transfer (Gardner DK, Schoolcraft WB, Wagley L, Schlenker T, Stevens J, Hesla J. A prospective randomized trial of blastocyst culture and transfer in in-vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod 1998;13:3434-40).
Births after intracytoplasmic injection of sperm obtained by testicular extraction from men with nonmosaic Klinefelter's syndrome (Palermo GD, Schlegel PN, Sills ES, Veeck LL, Zaninovic N, Menendez S, Rosenwaks Z. Births after intracytoplasmic injection of sperm obtained by testicular extraction from men with nonmosaic Klinefelter's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998, 26;338(9):588-90).
The first pregnancies following embryo culture in sequential media and transfer at the blastocyst stage of development (Jones GM, Trounson AO, Gardner DK, Kausche A, Lolatgis N, Wood C. Evolution of a culture protocol for successful blastocyst development and pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1998 ;13:169-77).
First ovum pick-up under 3-D ultrasound vision (Feichtinger W. Follicle aspiration with interactive three-dimensional digital imaging (Voluson): a step toward real-time puncturing under three-dimensional ultrasound control. Fertil Steril. 1998;70(2):374-7).
In 1998 first reports on births from frozen GV eggs, and donor eggs: - Tucker et al. Birth after cryopreservation of immature oocytes with subsequent in vitro maturation. (Tucker MJ, Wright G, Morton PC, Massey JB. Birth after cryopreservation of immature oocytes with subsequent in vitro maturation. Fertil Steril. 1998;70(3):578-9); Tucker et al. Clinical application of human egg cryopreservation. (Tucker MJ, Morton PC, Wright G, Sweitzer CL, Massey JB. Clinical application of human egg cryopreservation. Hum Reprod. 1998;13(11):3156-9).
Cryopreserved oocytes and testicular sperm: first ever birth. (Porcu E, Fabbri R, Petracchi S, Ciotti PM, Flamigni C. Ongoing pregnancy after intracytoplasmic injection of testicular spermatozoa into cryopreserved human oocytes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180:1044-5).
Cryopreserved oocytes and epididimal sperm: first ever birth. (Porcu E, Fabbri R, Ciotti PM, Petracchi S, Seracchioli R, Flamigni C. Ongoing pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of epididymal spermatozoa into cryopreserved human oocytes. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1999;16(5):283-5).
Oktay and Karlikaya were the first to report on ovarian tissue transplants after frozen storage. (Oktay K, Karlikaya G. Ovarian function after transplantation of frozen, banked autologous ovarian tissue. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun 22;342(25):1919).
The development of a completely chemically defined protein-free embryo culture medium and the births of the first batch of babies generated from the fertilization of eggs collected and inseminated in the said protein-free medium using spermatozoa also prepared in the same protein-free medium in both conventional IVF and ICSI. (Ali, Shahata MAM., Al-Natsha SD. Formulation of a protein-free medium for human assisted reproduction. Hum. Reprod. 2000 15: 145-156).
Cryopreserved oocytes and frozen sperm: first ever birth. (Porcu E, Fabbri R, Damiano G, Giunchi S, Fratto R, Ciotti PM, Venturoli S, Flamigni C. Clinical experience and applications of oocyte cryopreservation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000:27;169(1-2):33-7).
Birth of an infant from cryopreserved embryos (zygotes) produced by IVM oocytes derived from an unstimulated patient with PCOS (Chian RC, Gülekli B, Buckett WM, Tan SL. Pregnancy and delivery after cryopreservation of zygotes produced by in-vitro matured oocytes retrieved from a woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2001;16(8):1700-2).
First report on oocyte cryopreservation to save fertility in cancer patients. (Porcu E, Fabbri R, Damiano G, Fratto R, Giunchi S, Venturoli S. Oocyte cryopreservation in oncological patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;113 Suppl 1:S14-6).
The first reported live born following preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Retinoblastoma (Xu K, Rosenwaks Z, Beaverson K, Cholst I, Veeck L, Abramson DH. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for retinoblastoma: the first reported liveborn. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137(1):18-23).
A novel multi-gradient freezing technique for the cryopreswervation of the whole ovary. Thawing the ovary resulted in normal ovarian architecture and no damage to the vascular wall or intima. (Arav and Pasquale 2007 Yale Practice 12:2)
First IVM egg donation pregnancy in North America achieved by McGill Reproductive Centre (Holzer H, Scharf E, Chian RC, Demirtas E, Buckett W, Tan SL. In vitro maturation of oocytes collected from unstimulated ovaries for oocyte donation. Fertil Steril. 2007;88(1):62-7).2008
The first report of DNA fingerprinting to identify the blastocyst of origin for live-births and that gene expression profiles of biopsied trophectoderm can discriminate between viable and non-viable blastocysts. (Gayle M. Jones, David S. Cram, Bi Song, Georgia Kokkali, Kostas Pantos, and Alan O. Trounson. Novel strategy with potential to identify developmentally competent IVF blastocysts. Hum. Reprod. 2008; 23: 1748-1759).
Cryopreserved oocytes in cancer patients: first ever birth of healthy twins after oocyte cryopreservation and bilateral ovariectomy. (Porcu E, Venturoli S, Damiano G, Ciotti PM, Notarangelo L, Paradisi R, Moscarini M, Ambrosini G. Healthy twins delivered after oocyte cryopreservation and bilateral ovariectomy for ovarian cancer. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:265-7).
Simon Fishel and his group from CARE Fertility, Nottingham, reported about a Live birth after polar body array comparative genomic hybridization. (Fishel S, Gordon A, Lynch C, Dowell K, Ndukwe G, Kelada E, Thornton S, Jenner L, Cater E, Brown A, Garcia-Bernardo J. Live birth after polar body array comparative genomic hybridization prediction of embryo ploidy-the future of IVF? Fertil Steril. 2010;93(3):1006.e7-1006.e10).
Prof. Laufer at the Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem reported on a viable pregnancy achieved in a woman who carries the defective BRCA2 genes after In-Vitro Fertilized Embryos were tested and implanted. (Sagi M, Weinberg N, Eilat A, Aizenman E, Werner M, Girsh E, Siminovsky Y, Abeliovich D, Peretz T, Simon A, Laufer N. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for BRCA1/2--a novel clinical experience. Prenat Diagn. 2009;29(5):508-13).